By Dr. Katherine Vaughn
Few symptoms cause as much confusion and concern as fevers do.
Why do Fevers Occur?
A fever is a resetting of the body’s thermostat to a higher temperature. This usually occurs in response to an infection, although other conditions can cause fever as well. Fever is an indicator that the immune system is working.
What is a Fever?
We all tend to think of 98.6 as a “normal” temperature, and anything above as a fever. In fact, temperature varies from person to person, and will also fluctuate by about a degree in any given person over the course of a day. We typically run about a degree lower in the morning compared to the evening. A temperature of over 100.4 is considered a fever.
How should a Temperature Be Taken?
Rectal temperature is considered the “gold standard”, and it’s most important to obtain in this way in an infant under 3 months of age. An axillary or ear (tympanic) temperature can be obtained in older infants and children.
Forehead and pacifier thermometers are not as reliable a measure of temperature.
When Do I Worry About a Fever?
Always notify your doctor if an infant 3 months of age or younger has a rectal temp of over 100.4. The fever itself isn’t harmful, but babies this age can be quite ill without showing other signs, and will likely need to be seen.
For children over 3 months of age, it’s less likely they will be seriously ill and not have other signs and symptoms. A child’s behavior and activity level are more important clues to the severity of illness. A 6 month old who is playing and happy with a temperature of 103 would be less concerning than a 9 month old with a 101 temp who is listless and lethargic. A fever has to be quite high (generally felt to be greater than 106) for the fever itself to be harmful.
Other symptoms, such as rash, trouble breathing, lethargy, or other indications of a sick-looking child should prompt a call to your physician or visit to the ER. Fevers over 104 degrees, or any fever lasting more than 3 days should prompt a call to your physician to help assess for the need for a visit.
When Should a Fever Be Treated?
The main reason to treat a fever is for comfort. A happy child with a fever does not have to be treated. However, as temperatures rise over 101, many children become uncomfortable, with headache, body aches, increased heart rate, etc.
Treatment can be with acetominophen or ibuprofen at the appropriate doses. Never give your child aspirin for fever. It has been linked to a condition called Reyes’ syndrome.
Lukewarm sponge baths can also be used, as well as offering plenty of fluids. Don’t worry if your child doesn’t want to eat much for a few days, as long as they’re drinking.
Avoid alcohol sponging (it will raise the temperature) or cold water baths (increases discomfort).
Take Home Message
In a child under 3 months of age, call your doctor for any temperature over 100.4 . In older children, you can feel more comfortable evaluating the child, giving medicine to bring the fever down if they are uncomfortable, and calling the doctor if you’re concerned about how they are looking or acting.
Important disclaimer: The information on pkids.org is for educational purposes only and should not be considered to be medical advice. It is not meant to replace the advice of the physician who cares for your child. All medical advice and information should be considered to be incomplete without a physical exam, which is not possible without a visit to your doctor.
In the final analysis, the question of why bad things happen to good people transmutes itself into some very different questions, no longer asking why something happened, but asking how we will respond, what we intend to do now that it happened.
Harold S. Kushner